15

It should be noted that in addition to relying heavily on one strategy, it's also possible to mix strategies is various different ways, relying on different strategies to back each other up. For example in Fore(Kainantu-Goroka(TNG), PNG), there is a hierarchy like this, where if each strategy fails, the one lower in the list can be relied on. I'm putting "...


11

The way these languages do this is with inflections. Nouns, for example, can be declined to show cases, which tell the speaker things about what they are doing. Verbs can be used to show who the subject is, and the tense and mood and stuff. For example, in English we would say: The boy loves the girl However, in Latin (I don't know any other languages ...


10

Derek Bickerton and John McWhorter both have studied pidgins and creoles. A general observation is that communities that have to deal with other communities who don't speak their language, but still have to communicate resort to using pidgins, creoles which are simplified, grammatically speaking. McWhorter says English lost it's complex grammar when Vikings ...


9

There are three main strategies for indicating grammatical relations in languages with free word orders. It is common for languages to have more than one of these, and to my knowledge all free word order natural languages have either case or verbal agreement. Case Case refers to grammatical markers attached to nouns which indicate the noun's role in the ...


8

In terms of the vocabulary, not much is based on Esperanto. From the Slovio website: Esperanto? While Esperanto is a simple language its main problem is the fact that it is made up of too many unrelated languages and thus, if you speak Esperanto, no-one will understand you only other Esperantists. On the other hand Slovio, since it is made up of only ...


8

Lojban vocabulary was deliberately constructed from scratch, in an attempt to get around James Brown's copyright on Loglan (Brown was the creator of Loglan, but continued to retain control over it. The Logical Language Group was formed to reinvent the words, beginning in the late 1980s, while retaining Loglan's grammar. The words LLG created are the gismu, ...


8

The key principle to understanding what is being uttered or has been written is to know how to put the words into a structural context. This is often explained in simple terms using the W questions: who is doing something, what are they doing, how are they doing it, to whom are they doing it, when and where are they doing it, etc. In grammatical terms, these ...


7

One way to look at "elvish" features is to compare how different elvish languages look, and to take inspiration from that. A look at the phonologies of a few elvish languages: Quenya (phonology from here) Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal m n ŋ Stop p b t d k g Fricative f v s (ç) ...


7

Lojban differentiates between inalienable possession, alienable possession, and association: po'e, po, pe. But Lojban does so because its design aspired to typological completeness: it's followed the textbooks in its differentiation between alienable and inalienable possession. See http://www.lojban.org/static/publications/refgram_chunked/cllc/8/3/ "...


7

There are a lot of hypotheses and conjectures floating around the linguistic community regarding typological features (like phoneme inventories, inflecting or isolating type etc.) and size of the speech community. However, almost none of these conjectures is currently backed up by real world data (and, on the other side, real world data are often ...


7

Isolating languages do not use inflectional morphology, i.e., using affixes or other manipulations of roots to create words--all words are seperate, and none contain multiple morphemes. Vietnamese is an isolating language. Here's an example: the word snowman. It has two morphemes: snow- and -man, and therefore has a morpheme-to-word ratio of 2:1. Or take ...


7

Apart from the morphological / grammatical angle, we can also understand meaning by context. A mournful song sang the choir. Except in the Land of Strange Tales, we know that choirs sing songs. Songs don't sing choirs. The inversion is startling when interjected into speech of ordinary pattern, but it's quite understandable. Even though we don't have ...


7

There are a broad range of answers possible here and it would be impossible to list everything. In general, it is rather easy to come up with a feature that does not seem to occur in natural languages: simply take a feature every language appears to possess (for example: phonemes, verbs, hierarchical syntax that can be described with syntax trees, a very ...


6

As the linked WALS chapter already mentions, a common distinction is to contrast near speaker/near listener/distal rather than a simple distance constrast. One way to make such as system more "interesting" can be to add additional usages or shades of meaning to the different demonstratives, for example having one be a neutral term and the other one that is ...


5

Whilst I also think that this question is too broad as you could argue that almost all conlangs that weren't created to be "naturalistic" have some feature never before seen in a natural language. Wikipedia talks about many a priori languages which, by definiton, contain features not based on existing languages. With that being said, here are some of my ...


5

More of a pidgin experiment than full fledged con-creole, but worth a mention anyway: Viossa. Being made by conlangers, it likely has somewhat more elaborate grammar than most pidgins though (such as a morphological passive marker and a lot more adpositions than you’d find in most. Source: am co-creator).


5

Additionally, Lang Belta, which is the constructed creole spoken on the science fiction television show The Expanse.


5

To name a few: Da Mätz se Basa: High German. Old Piscean: British English. Kjā: Yoruba. Cheyoon: Mandarin. Al Mastizu: a creole of English, Spanish and Arabic.


5

The Volapük panoply of mood suffixes contains distinctions that were familiar to its audience through classicising education, but I think it fair to say they weren't in the immediate source languages: the optative, jussive, and potential moods as suffixes don't correspond to what German or English or French does morphologically; nor does giving a suffix to ...


5

These languages could be called minimalist conlangs. This term has been applied to languages like Toki Pona quite regularly, as a Google search will bear out. The term has also been used to describe a number of languages on the CBB, such as Sint and Nomadic. The same word can be applied to parts of a language, e.g. Davush on CBB refers to their Shiruitoan ...


4

It is probably impossible to say which language resembles Valyrian most, lacking a metric for similarity. But there are clearly identifyable influences of other languages, both constructed and natural. Let's start with the catch phrase valar morghulis from GRRM: It just sounds like Tolkien's Elvish languages, with valar being a word from Quenya and morghul ...


4

Well, The Font of All Knowledge (a.k.a. Wikipedia) tells us several things: There is not much similarity as far as phonology, as Hurrian seems to lack consonant voicing distinction (except in certain circumstances). BS clearly has this distinction. There's not enough BS to determine much by way of grammar, but Hurrian seems to be extremely agglutinative; BS ...


4

I can imagine a system that is based on size/importance instead of one based on near me/near you/distant. In this system, one demonstrative would point to the larger, more massive, more important, less recently introduced etc., another would point to the smaller, less massive, less important, more recently introduced target. Various degrees of intermediates ...


4

Lojban started as a relexification of Loglan but it has evolved independently from Loglan since that starting point. I don't think that the two languages can be considered dialects of each other because there is no mutual understandability left because every single word of Loglan was replaced with something different in Lojban (with the famous exception of ...


4

I think Programming and Mathematics fail to meet the standard because, despite being more precise, they are ultimately nowhere near as expressive as a language like English. Per request I will expand on my answer. Take, for example, the English sentence "Jane missed the bus this morning and couldn't get to the office in time her interview, needless to say, ...


3

Many languages, like Japanese and Korean, have particles added to words to show which part of speech they are. While word order is still necessary for these languages to make sense, a conlang might have grammar where each word's part of speech is not defined by their place in the sentence, but what particles are attached to the words. A similar effect could ...


3

When I've seen a clear distinction made here, it has been the following: Isolating languages have a very low morpheme-per-word ratio Analytic languages have little inflection However, this distinction is not made very consistently, so they're often used interchangeably. I have also seen a different distinction made, where analytic languages have a low ...


3

If we consider that the purpose of a constructed language is simply and purely created for Human interractions (like esperanto), mathematics cannot be considered as a conlang because it lacks one important thing that human language has: Context. When I say: He said it last time We need to both have the same context to understand the meaning. Mathematics ...


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