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I'm interpreting the question as how do I make obligatory subject pronouns at the beginning of a sentence diachronically stable under some perhaps-reasonable assumptions. First, the idea you're describing with an obligatory clause-initial subject pronoun and some kind of clitic in Wackernagel's position (directly after the first constituent) might already be ...


3

There are many languages without case distinctions on their pronouns. Mandarin, Japanese, and Arabic are some especially prominent examples (although Arabic does have special clitic pronouns that can be attached to verbs to mark the object). To someone who speaks one of these languages, the lack of case does not sound at all cave-man-ish.


3

Are they always treated so specially in languages, or in some languages are they no different than nouns or verbs? That's the main crux of my question. How else can these be dealt with outside of English, treating them as more primary-focused "objects" than tangential "pronouns" or "determiners", etc. See Vietnamese, it almost ...


3

Wikipedia is a good place to start, and several languages such as Japanese and Chinese have dedicated pages for their pronoun system. Japanese, as it so happens, has the structure you seek where suffixes make pronouns plural: 'Watashi' means 'I', while 'watashi-tachi' means 'we', etc. For many other languages, like Swahili and Arabic, there are good sections ...


1

To add on to Tristan's answer, most Bantu languages also lack case. In Swahili, for example, mimi can mean either "I" or "me", yeye either "he" or "him" (or "she" or "her" or…), and so on. Word order makes the relationship clear: objects come after the verb, subjects come before. So even ignoring ...


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