9

Yes, there are but they are language-specific. These are called phonotactics. They are well explained in the book of David Peterson "The Art of Language Invention"(E-book download link). Actually, these rules include: structure of a syllable. E.g. in Hawaiian language closed syllables are impossible. So words like "heck" are not allowed. ...


7

A long time ago, I was involved in a project named Folkspraak to create a Germanic conlang. It was entertaining, but it did not went very far at that attempt. Some grammatical hallmarks of Germanic languages are: A very simple tense system, present and past only, all other tenses are periphrastic and later acquisitions A past participle as third principal ...


5

I'll take a stab at the "evolve" part. Throat singing might be a possibility, so we could look at the environment surrounding that. "The popularity of throat singing among Tuvans seems to have arisen as a result of geographic location and culture. The open landscape of Tuva allows for the sounds to carry a great distance. Ethnomusicologists ...


5

Armenian is one of examples of modern language that has its own punctuation which differs quite noticeably from the Western one, which is nowadays widely adopted (of course, with variations). Here's are some noticeable differences: Armenian question mark (՞) is placed on the stressed vowel of the word in question rather than at the end of the sentence, for ...


4

I'm interpreting the question as how do I make obligatory subject pronouns at the beginning of a sentence diachronically stable under some perhaps-reasonable assumptions. First, the idea you're describing with an obligatory clause-initial subject pronoun and some kind of clitic in Wackernagel's position (directly after the first constituent) might already be ...


4

Yes, of course, that's entirely possible! See also word-final voicing in Basque, which is an example of a sound change that affects word-final consonants especially much. Conceivable, such could also lead to spirantization (plosive>fricative) word-finally. (And there are certainly more other ways such a trait could come to be)


4

This is not inherently unnatural. As you point out, English "both" (and reasonable translations such as Spanish "ambos") easily fit the role of every(2) (I would argue that whether the noun is marked as singular or plural isn't particularly interesting here). every(1) can be reasonably analyzed as a definiteness marking and is encompassed ...


4

Punctuation is not universal. Chinese and Japanese didn't used to have punctuation, nor apparently did Latin and Ancient Greek. So I'd say that's the first thing to consider: your proto-script needn't have had any punctuation at all. But over time, scribes found that it was a pain in the backside to write long continuous strings and just figure out by ...


3

It's quite correct that punctuation only really became at thing after the printing-press. So it's be perfectly natural to go without it in many fictional settings. Even so, even though it was anachronistic, I worked on this question for my own last conscript because I enjoyed it. I read what I could to find all the "functions" performed by every ...


2

Yes, there are various rules to the structure of words, this is a mix of syllable structure and phonotactic rules. These, however, are not universal, but rather, are language-specific, as mentioned above. For example, in Japanese, it is a Open Syllable language, but it can have -n or -m serve as a Coda. But no other consonant can act as such. 無限 (Mu-gen) 月讀 (...


2

(Side note: asking multiple questions at once is not recommended here. I see that @VictorVosMottor has already given a good answer to your question (2), so I will restrict myself to answering (1).) The sound of "q". I don't understand how to pronounce any words that have "q" in it. According to IPA pulmonic consonant chart (with audio), ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible