There is the term relexification meaning that the words of a given language are replaced by new words without changing the structure of the starting language. Relexification does not only occur in conlangs but also in natural languages.
What is meant by "logical language", is that the language's grammar is engineered so that any statement you make is syntactically unambiguous. Grammatically correct statements only parse one way.
In natural languages, and many constructed languages, the meaning of a statement can be interpreted to be a number of things, depending on context.
An example to ...
You may be interested in E-Prime.
E-Prime is a version of English that excludes all forms of the verb to be, including all conjugations, contractions and archaic forms. This makes many objective statements like "Roses are red" impossible. Instead a person is required to use more subjective constructions like "Roses appear red to me".
Basically, your question is misstated.
In our own world, languages cannot enforce philosophies. You can be a Hegelian, a Tomist, a Berkelian, or a Marxist, in any given language, from Modern English to Ancient Farsi.
After all, all languages have this pesky word, "no", so that anything that can be affirmed can also be negated.
In a constructed world, ...
It happens with sign languages - often there are two "versions" of a sign language, the first one (less official, natural) is generally used by the community and has its own grammar, the second one (more official, heavily constructed) parallels grammar (syntax) of the corresponding spoken language.
E.g.there is the natural Polish Sign Language, and a rather ...
We can have two classes of nouns: souls, and the perceptions and ideas of souls. Ideas nouns must be inflected for who they are being perceived by: you, God, or whoever. This would have the effect of turning a sentence like "The dog is red" into "The dog seems red to me."
Secondly, instead of saying "The dog…" or "There is a dog…", you would say "I have the ...
First a in this form brand new fact from natural languages: All natural languages are of approximately the same efficiency despite their quite noticeable differences (some languages are spoken at a rather fast pace in syllables per second, but than the information content of a syllable is lower than in other languages that are spoken more slowly). The ...
For a lower-level kind of isomorphism: I have read a story in which an alien speaks a synthetic language, suited to its own vocal tract, into a machine that converts its speech phoneme-for-phoneme into a human language.
It could be a scene in Poul Anderson's A Circus of Hells, or not.