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19

The language still has Okrand's guidance, and he trusts Robyn to do it correctly. From IndieWire: Before Stewart initially took the “Discovery” job, she did check in with Okrand himself to make sure he approved. “He said, ‘You know what? I’m really glad you’re doing this for two reasons: One is so I don’t have to do it.’ Because just for a movie, it’s a lot ...


19

Yes. According to Wikipedia, Esperanto has 350 native speakers (data 1996). There is also a story about a linguist only speaking to his son in Klingon, but even though the child picked it up somewhat, later in life the child stopped speaking Klingon. Currently, he doesn't. Also, see Esperanto native speaker AMA on reddit and a blog I enjoyed about speaking ...


16

The best possible approach to a writing system "from the middle" is probably a text spiralling outwards. One famous artefact, the Phaistos Disk, shows a spiral layout of the text, but is is unknown whether it should be read inwards (most scholars prefer this) or outwards and the writing system is still undeciphered. Your graphical samples suggest a ...


15

Yes. According to this interview with Tolkien, he really did design it to be Semitic. He says, The dwarves of course are quite obviously, wouldn't you say that in many ways they remind you of the Jews? Their words are Semitic obviously, constructed to be Semitic. In other words, he did design their tongue to be very like the Semitic language, possibly ...


13

The oldest language whose creator set out to actually invent a language (as opposed to Pāṇini, who wanted to create a classical standard out of an already extant language) was probably Lingua Ignota. The formerly brilliant Langmaker website had an article on it (now accessible through the Wayback Machine). It was made in the twelfth century, predating ...


11

To begin with, Tolkien writes in letter 142 that I love music but have no aptitude for it [...] Slavonic languages are for me almost in the same category. I have had a go at many tongues in my time, but I am in no ordinary sense a 'linguist'; and the time I once spent on trying to learn Serbian and Russian have left me with no practical results, only a ...


11

Or, to the opposite, was Tengwar already designed before the Voynich manuscript was rediscovered and publically known? The manuscript was rediscovered in 1912. Tolkien, according to Wikipedia, started developing Elvish in 1910 or 1911... before the Voynich manuscript was rediscovered. There is at least one claim that he was aware of it, though, although it ...


11

My answer is a little biased, but I can speak for the history of Solresol. Solresol was invented in the early 1800s, grew in popularity over the next ~70 years, even after the death of its creator, and then (apparently) abruptly died out in the early 1900s, despite supposedly being at the peak of its popularity. There were only a few brief mentions of ...


11

Since conlangs by their very nature don't start out with any speakers, and in most cases the author is not immediately a skilled user of the language, conlangs tend start out dead, and so under this definition almost any conlang with a speaker community would technically once have been dead. However, going by "dying" as having a community, then losing it, ...


10

Assuming that the OP misremembered a few facts, the language may be Babm, invented by the Japanese philosopher Rikichi [Fuishiki] Okamoto (1885–1963) and first published in 1962. It uses the Latin script as a syllabary (which is not the same thing as using a latinate vocabulary) and has "some degree of analytic inflection".


9

One guy taught his daughter Volapuk. There is a contemporary case of someone teaching their kids their personal conlang, she used to be active on one of Facebook's conlang groups. The revived languages, Cornish, Hebrew, Sanskrit, have similar dynamics to conlangs. Having government support in the form of schools and day care works wonders for the project ...


9

From here on Theoryland: Is there a complete language of the Old Tongue, and if so how long did it take you to develop it? ROBERT JORDAN There are basic 880 some words—maybe 900. I got a list of what is considered basic English—which are the 800 odd words of a basic English vocabulary. Removed the words that were of no use in the context of my ...


9

Yes. Loglan is continuously being developed and modified, as the website shows. There are new reports about changes to the language (and proposals to do so). The CEO of the Loglan Institute, Randall Holmes, has written periodic reports on the language; the one from 2015 shows that several speakers have proposed changes, including the addition of new words (...


9

For auxiliary languages it's usually publication date of the first grammar/dictionary released to the public or the first work dedicated to the language, whichever comes first. For Esperanto this was Unua Libro, which was published in 1887 - more than a year after Zamenhof began working on the language. Wikipedia also lists the year of creation of ...


9

Academia Prisca published Modern Indo-European as a revival of a late stage of the Indo-European language (Northwest Indo-European, billed as the ancestor of Italo-Celtic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic). Resources published for learning include a grammar, syntax, conjugator, vocabulary, lessons and texts. Since it is meant as a modern revival, it introduces ...


8

I have found the language again, it is named Zilengo and it was designed by OKA Asajiro in 1890. Apparently not much information about the language is preserved.


7

I’m going to try to avoid any kind of argument about politics, religion or what does or does not count as a “conlang,” and just give this as a historical case that I think is relevant to the spirit of the question. Biblical Hebrew was a natural language, and Rabbinic Hebrew a scholarly one, but modern Hebrew needed a vast number of neologisms, greatly ...


7

There is something about language, which seems so obvious to us humans that it is rarely stated: Language is encoded in a linear, one-dimensional fashion. The words you utter (and the sillables in those words; and the phonemes in those sillables) form an ordered sequence in time. Imagine e.g. dicating a table to someone else: You have to pick a certain ...


7

The Israeli military uses a relexification of Hebrew called "NADBAR", according to Conlang Wikibooks†. A relexification of a language remains the grammar (by definition) and writing system (in practice) but gains new words. Your first (semi-)conlang was probably a relexification of English or another language. Many languages used in the military are not ...


7

As per this (cited by "An Analysis of Dwarvish" in Arda Philology 1: Proceedings of the First International Conference, with a very nice glossary of the language, which can be found here): Regarding Khuzdul, Tolkien stated that "this tongue has been sketched in some detail of structure, if with a very small vocabulary" (PM:300). It evidently came into ...


6

Basic English is minimal in that it limits the number of words in the language (though not as extremely as Toki Pona). It was intended to be an international auxiliary language (although it never really caught on). The language was used in 1945 in order to quickly teach Chinese sailors to understand naval orders. This was reported at the time in a Time ...


6

My experiences are largely the same as those of Adarain, though I have access to a data-set that perhaps better shows the predominance of artlangs, as I moderate a moderately sized discord server in which users can request roles that show what kind of languages they make and at the same time get a fancy-coloured name. Many users have more than one roles and ...


6

I'm as pro-Occidental as they come (it's the only auxiliary language that I support) but I came across that article in 1928 during my typing up the archives of Cosmoglotta and that article is nothing more than Ric Berger wishful thinking. He unfortunately spent just as much time attacking Ido as he did supporting Occidental, and kept on proclaiming it to be ...


6

Toki pona is a minimalist language with a ~125 word vocabulary that can be written using a proposed system of either Chinese or Japanese characters, although it is officially written in the Latin alphabet. On tokipona.net, click on "Word List" in the group of links at the top for the full list of words, or compress for ways to write it using ...


6

This may be a stretch and probably not what you’re looking for, but: Essentially, that’s what Japanese did. Japanese and Chinese have nothing in common, yet when the Chinese writing system made it to Japan over 1000 years ago it was the only one they had. Initially, it was used only to write Chinese, but then it was developed into a system suitable to write ...


5

There's a pretty badly written account (English translation) of someone's children learning Arka, though I have no idea if it's true. There's also the better-known case of d'Armond Speers teaching his kid Klingon. Edit: the author of the first article later confirmed that it was a hoax.


5

The Volapük panoply of mood suffixes contains distinctions that were familiar to its audience through classicising education, but I think it fair to say they weren't in the immediate source languages: the optative, jussive, and potential moods as suffixes don't correspond to what German or English or French does morphologically; nor does giving a suffix to ...


5

This is a hard to answer question, as there isn’t any statistically useful database. CALS has a bunch of data, but only a small subset of conlangers have ever entered their data there. There, there seems to be a clear preference for the creation of Artlangs, i.e. creating languages simply for the sake of creating art, not to fulfill any purpose. A priori ...


5

Outright Chinese characters? I am not aware of one (Though you might want to look up A Book from the Sky). Conlangs using Chinese-style characters? Certainly. Mark Rosenfelder, in Advanced Language Construction, draws examples from his own Uyseʔ and Wede:i. While the Grammar of Wede:i is available, only a little of its written system us described, and Uyseʔ ...


4

Everything in this answer is taken from the website of the Láadan language (link to the page). I am by no means an expert, but this is directly from the mouth of Laáadan's creator. The following quote contains pertinent excerpts of the article, parts of which I have put in bold: Another goal I had for Láadan was that it should be as easy as possible to ...


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