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9
votes
3answers
198 views

Usage of different plural systems in the same language

Let's assume a language once had an extensive plural system, indicating singular/dual/paucal/plural distinctions on nouns, pronouns, verbs, et cetera. Over time, as has happened in real languages, ...
9
votes
2answers
604 views

How to develop a detailed, realistic a posteriori conlang?

Background To begin, I’ve been conlanging ‘properly’ for around two to two and a half years now and have been into it for far, far longer. However, I have yet to create a conlang that is truly in-...
9
votes
2answers
321 views

Are there any constructed languages designed for legal agreements / country constitutions?

A few weeks back i've watched a talk of Stephen Wolfram. I think was this video. Plus this article is also relevant. The idea discussed was: how to build a language for formalizing every day ...
9
votes
1answer
308 views

What are common origins of accusative case markers?

What are the primary way(s) accusative case markers can develop? The primary way of development of oblique case markers seems relatively straightforward, with attachment of adpositions (which can ...
9
votes
2answers
269 views

Languages where the part of speech of a root is "fixed"?

By way of introduction, this question is about a quirk of Esperanto, but there is a general conlang question at the end, I promise. In Esperanto, every root has a natural grammatical part of speech, ...
9
votes
1answer
578 views

List of conlangs whose goal is to minimize ambiguity

Which conlangs have a primary goals of avoiding ambiguity? I know Lojban had that as a goal (and is in fact syntactically unambiguous), but are there others?
9
votes
1answer
272 views

Is Toki Pona a fast language?

There are well-known and notable differences in speed for natural languages: While a fast language like Spanish is spoken at a speed of about 6–7 syllables per second, a slow language like German, ...
9
votes
2answers
150 views

Are there any rules of thumb for number of "steps" between two points in a language's natural development?

Let's suppose that you want to create Conlang B. You want this conlang to be derived from Conlang A. Let's also suppose that you have some arbitrary period of time in between A and B. Are there any ...
9
votes
1answer
819 views

How do Belters code-switch English and Belter Creole?

In the book and TV series The Expanse inhabitants of the asteroid belt (Belters) speak a language called Belter Creole, a conlang designed by Nick Farmer which is intended to be the result of ...
9
votes
3answers
328 views

What tools exist for creating syntactically correct generated text in new languages?

Another way to put this is, what tools exist to generate sentences in the same way that some conlanging tools generate phonotactically valid words. I've heard people suggest using word generators to ...
9
votes
0answers
221 views

Why is Romanian not a control language for Interlingua?

IALA Interlingua is a naturalistic romance-based conlang. There are six control languages (primary: English, French, Italian, and Spanish/Portuguese counted as one language "Iberian"; secondary: ...
9
votes
0answers
87 views

Language evolution in Ido

The Wikipedia article on Ido states that there have been almost no official changes to the Ido language since 1922. But Ido has a small speech community, and therefore there may be unofficial changes ...
8
votes
5answers
922 views

Is there a middle-written language?

Real languages I am aware of several types of writing systems. The first one would be left to right and a prime example is English and also most of other languages, no matter if they use letters or ...
8
votes
3answers
387 views

What reasons would there be for not having a human conlang with only vowels?

All natlangs have both consonants and vowels, but it's not immediately obvious why a human language couldn't be made from only vowels. Has anyone theorised about why natlangs always have consonants? ...
8
votes
2answers
281 views

Should I include morphology in my proto language?

Most, if not all natural languages have some form of morphology, such as noun case or poly-personal agreement. However, these features are usually evolved from prepositions and auxiliary verbs, and ...
8
votes
5answers
301 views

Syntactic word that carries no meaning - is there a name for that?

Is there a name for words that exist purely for syntactic reasons and carry no lexical meaning? Reason: Some forms of sentence in my language don't have verbs, but information such as tense and mood ...
8
votes
2answers
668 views

How do I do interlinear glosses for a conlang?

Already, in the meta there are discussions about if people should gloss their sample text. I find their argument persuasive that foreign text without a gloss is useless without several thousand hours ...
8
votes
3answers
225 views

A biphonic language

How could a language evolve such that the vowels are biphonic (like in throat singing)? Note: Biphonicity is when two notes/tones are sung simultaneously. There are languages that are whistled or ...
8
votes
4answers
769 views

Are there any Conlangs using Chinese characters?

The Chinese character system is one that is universal to many Chinese dialects. Two people can pronounce the same character in two different ways, but when writing to each other it is intelligible. ...
8
votes
5answers
405 views

Finding inspiration for letter forms?

I believe I've mentioned before on here how I struggle to come up with forms for letters. I've tried to solve this by looking at other systems. Despite the diversity in our world, I've found it ...
8
votes
2answers
399 views

Can Pokemon language encode enough information to be a language?

I know that like Star Wars' droid, Pikachu's language is just nonsense with emotionally appropriate intonation, that said... Can suprasegmental features (accent, tone, etc) encode a single three ...
8
votes
3answers
292 views

Are there any successful conlangs using information density as a design goal?

I'm interested in the idea of a conlang which could be used to create extremely information dense statements - such that, for example, a single word could be built up from morphemes to express a ...
8
votes
3answers
196 views

What are sounds that I have to include in my phonology for it to be naturalistic?

Additionally, are there any such things as hierarchies, where if I want to include one sound, I should also include another?
8
votes
2answers
142 views

Are Interslavic and Neoslavonic the same conlang?

I read that Interslavic and Neoslavonic merged into a single language. All three projects collaborated closely with each other from that time, and in 2011 Medžuslovjanski („Interslavic”) was chosen ...
8
votes
2answers
209 views

How to model the change of script over time

I want two languages to share a root but I want them to look unrecognizable written down (with the original language having a written form, so not independently created writing systems). Are there any ...
8
votes
2answers
218 views

Mixed writing systems - which words should have their own symbols?

Assume that a conlang is written partially with an alphabet and partially with pictograms. The idea is to have something like the Japanese writing system. Does it follows the structure of natlangs ...
8
votes
3answers
117 views

How can I add irregularities to a morphological paradigm?

So, I'm trying to make something with a naturalistic feel, even though the current phonetic system distinguishes about 38 phonemes... Let's say I'll tackle this later. I have issues with grammar... I ...
8
votes
3answers
79 views

State-based analogue to distributive case

I am developing conlang that has grammatical cases system for nominals that for each spatial case there is state-based case. In Finnic languages grammatical cases that denote states occur, examples ...
8
votes
1answer
309 views

An Elvish word for squirrel

Is there an Elvish word for squirrel? According to my latest information from Helmut W. Pesch, Das große Elbisch-Buch, Bastei-Lübbe 2009, there is no such word. My best try is the Quenya word ...
8
votes
1answer
95 views

good naturalistic system for Germanic language?

I hope this isn't too redundant of a question... I was hoping somebody could briefly summarize what general features languages descended from proto-Germanic tend to have? I understand all the ...
8
votes
1answer
113 views

Which categories of inalienable possession have conlangs expressed?

In many natlangs a grammatical distinction is made between alienable and inalienable possession. Inalienable possession is used for things which are in some way conceptualised as being inseparable ...
8
votes
2answers
193 views

Are there any resources to learn Solresol available in English?

I've been interested in learning Solresol, as the idea of it intrigues me. But I haven't been able to find anything in English to learn it from (the original works on the language are in French, which ...
8
votes
2answers
56 views

How long do I need to influence language development?

Taja is a language with Verb-Subject-Object word order. However, emperor Kai wants to always be the first, so, he wants all sentences where he is the subject to have a Subject-Verb-Object word order. ...
8
votes
3answers
224 views

Constructed languages or dialects for Time travellers

Time travel is a standard trope in Science Fiction and Fantasy. Since time travel disrupts the normal perception of time time travellers may develop some linguistic means to deal with this situation. ...
8
votes
1answer
264 views

Organizing a lexicon in a logographic writing system

A little background before my question: I am an amateur in mid-development of a logographic writing system, not necessarily a whole language with phonetics. As I develop, I don't so much care about ...
8
votes
2answers
357 views

Has any conlang ever replaced the use of a pidgin?

I've read that being a simple, yet more expressive, substitute for a pidgin language is one of the possible applications of Toki Pona. In situations where people from multiple languages come together ...
8
votes
1answer
227 views

How to conjugate "fhtagn" in R'lyehian?

The accepted translation of Lovecraft's "Cthulhu fhtagn" seems to be "Cthulhu dreams". How would one conjugate "fhtagn" to get the word derivations "dream", "dreamer", "dreaming". This answer had a ...
8
votes
1answer
244 views

Is there a stroke order for any of the Klingon alphabets?

Is there an order in which you write the strokes making up a letter belonging to the Klingon alphabet (apart from the Latin alphabet)? Are letters from Klingon alphabets intended to be written ...
8
votes
1answer
129 views

Where do the words in Láadan come from?

Láadan is a language created as an experiment in seeing if a constructed language designed specifically for women could better express the views of women better than natural Western languages. As ...
8
votes
1answer
86 views

Is there any easy way to find out how multiple unrelated languages express the same concept?

As any linguist (and anyone who knows unrelated languages, probably), not all languages express things the same way. Worse yet, its not possible to express everything logically, so all languages are ...
7
votes
3answers
295 views

Are there conlangs which compel their users to speak with honesty?

George Orwell's novel 1984 introduced us to Newspeak, a language devised by authorities to be entirely misleading. Languages that attempt to guide knowledge have been termed Orwellian and, more ...
7
votes
4answers
250 views

How can I avoid "relexing" punctuation?

I'm trying to design a conscript for my conlang Atili and would like to create punctuation in order to deliminate sentences and transcribe limited prosody. However, I don't just want to create new ...
7
votes
2answers
8k views

How would you say "good morning" or "hello" politely in Klingon?

Klingons from Star Trek aren't very polite, and the language developed for them reflects that - they don't exactly have many polite ways to say things. The closest think I've found to a polite ...
7
votes
4answers
211 views

Are there any examples of artificial creoles of natural languages?

I remember reading somewhere of a creole-ish artificial language of two (possibly more) natural languages. In the text (I do NOT remember where it was) only one creole (I'm using the term loosely here,...
7
votes
2answers
674 views

How can I become a professional conlang designer?

There is some market for constructed languages in film, television, computer games and literature. Some conlangs designs were commissioned to linguists who did the real word. Is there a possibility ...
7
votes
3answers
916 views

What is the key to realistic inventories [closed]

Shy of simply recreating or stitching together natural languages' phonological inventories, what is the solution for making a naturalistic conlangs' inventory naturalistic?
7
votes
2answers
263 views

Designing a vocabulary for geographical features

I want to draw a map of a fictional world resembling Europe in climate and basic geographic features (so there are rivers and lakes, alpine mountains, mittelgebirge, marsh lands and bogs, some plains ...
7
votes
3answers
109 views

What tools are there to make this alien language? [duplicate]

Probably already been asked before but here goes. Stevefan has traveled through some sort of trans-dimensional breach made of handwavium to another dimension where the inhabitants don't speak English. ...
7
votes
1answer
199 views

Grammatical cases occurring only in conlangs

What are examples of grammatical cases that are not attested in natural languages, but occur in some conlang? To qualify here, the conlang should have at least some bit of flesh (e.g., a few ...
7
votes
3answers
236 views

Swadesh List for Verb Infinitives?

I was looking through Wikipedia's Swadesh Lists recently and wondered if there was anything like a Swadesh list for verb infinitives, similar to how Spanish verbs work (to be, to want, to eat, to know,...

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