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8
votes
3answers
189 views

What are sounds that I have to include in my phonology for it to be naturalistic?

Additionally, are there any such things as hierarchies, where if I want to include one sound, I should also include another?
14
votes
2answers
407 views

Which IPA phones can be made and understood underwater?

I have a human culture that gradually develops an underwater civilisation. They still require mouth and nose breathing and will be living in air bubbles, retaining traditional phones. They do spend a ...
5
votes
4answers
503 views

I'm constructing a language with some rather hard-to-produce symbols. Computer or paper?

My constructed language has 26 English letters and 30 special characters (plus four different accent marks.) The characters are slightly abstract. The closest I've gotten to producing them is with ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

How to link extraterrestrial animal names from other language with terrestrial languages? [closed]

As title states; how to name extraterrestrial fauna/flora to human languages, would reffering to animals similar to cows as to cows and to plant that bears round red fruits as to apple be linguisticly ...
4
votes
3answers
293 views

Is there any importance of "dots" while constructing alphabets for a language?

In English, there is a little dot over small letters of i and j. I am not sure what that dot signifies to - pronunciation or sound. In Gujarati, Hindi and Sanskrit languages, there happens to be dot ...
7
votes
1answer
211 views

What are the aspects of Esperanto?

By design (looking at the 16 rules of Esperanto) there is no verbal aspect in the Esperanto grammar. However, one can see an incohative aspect in the prefix ek- (e.g., mi ekridas "I burst out laughing"...
10
votes
1answer
113 views

Is there existing terminology for distinguishing multiple imperative moods?

I have found a conlang, Klyran, which has a rather interesting feature: multiple imperative moods. Quoting from the documentation: For imperative mood there are number of suffixes that correspond ...
7
votes
3answers
230 views

Swadesh List for Verb Infinitives?

I was looking through Wikipedia's Swadesh Lists recently and wondered if there was anything like a Swadesh list for verb infinitives, similar to how Spanish verbs work (to be, to want, to eat, to know,...
7
votes
2answers
259 views

Designing a vocabulary for geographical features

I want to draw a map of a fictional world resembling Europe in climate and basic geographic features (so there are rivers and lakes, alpine mountains, mittelgebirge, marsh lands and bogs, some plains ...
8
votes
5answers
399 views

Finding inspiration for letter forms?

I believe I've mentioned before on here how I struggle to come up with forms for letters. I've tried to solve this by looking at other systems. Despite the diversity in our world, I've found it ...
8
votes
1answer
111 views

Which categories of inalienable possession have conlangs expressed?

In many natlangs a grammatical distinction is made between alienable and inalienable possession. Inalienable possession is used for things which are in some way conceptualised as being inseparable ...
6
votes
1answer
154 views

Are there differences between the Belter Creole of the books and the show?

Belter Creole is a conlang creole spoken in the novel series The Expanse by James S. A. Corey. When the novel was adapted into a TV series they got linguist Nick Farmer to develop the language. Are ...
5
votes
2answers
170 views

Language with contextual-free vocabulary

Every language (I know of) needs a context or a mark of reference for understanding a lot of the expressed message. I'm refering about concepts like I, you, this, there, tomorrow... I'd bet there is ...
6
votes
1answer
122 views

Are there convincing examples that auxiliary constructed languages are in fact easier to learn?

Auxiliary constructed languages are meant to be learnt faster than natural languages. Are there convincing examples that auxiliary constructed languages are in fact easier to learn than natural ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Is there anyone that has a conlang as their first/only language?

It seems that people generally use constructed languages in very limited circumstances, or within small communities that speak the language. Thus it seems to me unlikely that one of these languages ...
8
votes
1answer
240 views

Is there a stroke order for any of the Klingon alphabets?

Is there an order in which you write the strokes making up a letter belonging to the Klingon alphabet (apart from the Latin alphabet)? Are letters from Klingon alphabets intended to be written ...
7
votes
1answer
276 views

Dialects of Klingon

There seem to be dialects of Klingon, as stated here, Maltz speaks the Rumaiy dialect while Saavik speaks the Kumburan dialect. Is there something known about the differences between the Klingon ...
9
votes
0answers
215 views

Why is Romanian not a control language for Interlingua?

IALA Interlingua is a naturalistic romance-based conlang. There are six control languages (primary: English, French, Italian, and Spanish/Portuguese counted as one language "Iberian"; secondary: ...
11
votes
5answers
328 views

How can I make my conlang's borrowings naturalistic?

As something of a follow-on to my question about “naturalizing” conlangs, I’m looking for any information - actual tools would be nice, too, if available - for “borrowing”...
8
votes
5answers
296 views

Syntactic word that carries no meaning - is there a name for that?

Is there a name for words that exist purely for syntactic reasons and carry no lexical meaning? Reason: Some forms of sentence in my language don't have verbs, but information such as tense and mood ...
8
votes
5answers
910 views

Is there a middle-written language?

Real languages I am aware of several types of writing systems. The first one would be left to right and a prime example is English and also most of other languages, no matter if they use letters or ...
7
votes
0answers
71 views

Free word building in Interlingua

There is even a Wikipedia article on Free word building in Interlingua stating that it is feasible to apply derivational affixes in Interlingua productively even when none of the so-called control ...
6
votes
2answers
295 views

Teaching children constructed languages

Are there any modern accounts (either of personal experiences of individuals on this forum, or in general) of an individual creating their own language and teaching it to their child(ren)/family?
7
votes
1answer
116 views

Does Volapük contain any elements (order, participle, etc) not present in its European source languages?

Volapük was designed back in the 1800s to be a 'world language', but at first glance, it appears to the layman (me) to just be a mixing of Romance languages, English, and maybe High German. Are there ...
9
votes
0answers
83 views

Language evolution in Ido

The Wikipedia article on Ido states that there have been almost no official changes to the Ido language since 1922. But Ido has a small speech community, and therefore there may be unofficial changes ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

ConLanging w/ Raspberry Pi? [duplicate]

Is there any coding/program that can be used in raspberry pi for creating a language? Like the ability to create a dictionary with sounds? Or an interactive creative process to start making words and ...
10
votes
1answer
526 views

Is any of the Wakandan writing in Black Panther used for something other than English?

For the film Black Panther production designer Hannah Beachler created a Wakandan writing system partially based on real African writing systems. Well that's what this and other news articles say, but ...
14
votes
6answers
5k views

Is there evidence that any natural languages were actually constructed?

Is there any evidence that a ‘natural’ language that exists today was created by somebody a thousand (or two) years ago. And that it evolved till today?
7
votes
2answers
509 views

What are the common features of "Elvish" conlangs?

I want to create a fantasy world with Elves speaking their own language. In order to avoid unwanted associations with works of other authors, the Elves should speak a newly invented language. What ...
10
votes
1answer
732 views

What do double consonants specify in Esperanto?

The Esperanto word for 'Finland' is Finnlando. What does the doubled consonant specify? The Esperanto alphabet is phonemic. Why are there two consonants? Is it gemination (which doesn't appear often ...
9
votes
2answers
369 views

How Standard Average European is Esperanto?

Esperanto is by design based on European languages, so every similarity to European languages is in fact intended. But I want to know how Standard Average European (SAE criteria listed by @Sparksbet) ...
9
votes
2answers
297 views

What is the influence of Russian on Tolkien's languages?

I have noticed some artifacts from Russian in published earlier manuscripts of Tolkiens works, e.g., The figure named Beorn in The Hobbit was named Medwed in earlier manuscripts In Early Quenya, ...
0
votes
1answer
153 views

What are reasons to construct an auxlang, artlang, altlang, etc? [closed]

What are reasons to construct a language? Why do people construct languages? For example, auxlangs are created for global (or regional) 'compatibility'. Why do people construct artlangs, altlangs, ...
11
votes
3answers
428 views

Which features make a language easier to learn?

Which features make a language easier to learn for children learning a constructed language as L1? Are children learning a language with these features able to learn the language faster than a natural,...
5
votes
2answers
200 views

Is a naturalistic language without countable nouns possible?

Is a naturalistic language without count nouns possible, thus having only mass nouns? This would mean having many words for things with water: a sea, an ocean, a bottle of water, a puddle, etc. What ...
8
votes
2answers
204 views

How to model the change of script over time

I want two languages to share a root but I want them to look unrecognizable written down (with the original language having a written form, so not independently created writing systems). Are there any ...
8
votes
1answer
305 views

An Elvish word for squirrel

Is there an Elvish word for squirrel? According to my latest information from Helmut W. Pesch, Das große Elbisch-Buch, Bastei-Lübbe 2009, there is no such word. My best try is the Quenya word ...
5
votes
1answer
270 views

Are there nasalized nasal consonants?

As in, [ñ] or [ñ̃]. It seems to me you can make a nasal sound more nasal, maybe by stressing your nose muscles or something in that sense. Does this exist? EDIT: Apologies, I was thinking about ...
5
votes
1answer
143 views

Are there works composed in Quenya or Sindarin by people other than Tolkien himself?

Are there any works composed (e.g., peoms, songs, short stories) in either Quenya or Sindarin by other authors than JRR Tolkien himself? I am already aware of some dialogues in the Lord of the Rings ...
9
votes
3answers
372 views

Should I use “double o” in Toki Pona?

In Toki Pona, the small word o has several meanings. In the official book Toki Pona: The Language of Good, it says The particle o has three uses: (1) after a noun phrase to show who is being ...
4
votes
4answers
546 views

Could a language with no voiced fricatives exist?

I am working on a language and I am trying to bring it down to seventeen consonants. One of the ways I am trying to do that is by removing all voiced fricatives. Is this even reasonable?
5
votes
1answer
406 views

Are there speech communities for Tolkien's Elvish languages?

Has anyone tried to put one of Tolkien's Elvish languages Sindarin or Quenya into everyday conversational use? I can imagine fan groups doing this, but I can also imagine big problems with the ...
12
votes
2answers
537 views

Is there a specific term for a constructed writing system purportedly used for a conlang but actually for a natlang?

Many constructed writing systems are purportedly used to write conlangs, but in reality are actually used to write English or another natlang. For example, omniglot.com says that Kryptonian is "a ...
7
votes
1answer
277 views

How does one determine the date a constructed language was invented?

Some constructed languages list a date, or at least year, of creation. Is there any official or unofficial standard to determine that date for any given conlang? The way I see it, there are several ...
8
votes
2answers
214 views

Mixed writing systems - which words should have their own symbols?

Assume that a conlang is written partially with an alphabet and partially with pictograms. The idea is to have something like the Japanese writing system. Does it follows the structure of natlangs ...
9
votes
2answers
317 views

How would the grammar of a conlang develop as a creole from other languages?

Assume that the backstory of a conlang is that it developed from a set of other languages. In other words, speakers of these (different) languages were living in the same area and were communicating ...
10
votes
3answers
621 views

International Auxiliary Language created by a Japanese person

I remember some facts about an international auxiliary language (IAL) created by a Japanese person, but unfortunately I both forgot the name of the inventor and the name of the IAL. Can someone help ...
1
vote
2answers
305 views

Brahmic conscript with European style [closed]

The scripts of South Asia (i.e. the Indian subcontinent), e.g. Devanagari, and Southeast Asia, e.g. Thai, are almost all derived from the Brahmic script. They show gradual visual relationships and ...
14
votes
1answer
772 views

What has the impact of Star Trek: Discovery been on the development of Klingon?

Has Klingon changed significantly since it has started being used for Star Trek: Discovery? Has the vocabulary grown significantly? Has there been novel grammar revealed? To what extent is the ...
6
votes
2answers
667 views

How can I become a professional conlang designer?

There is some market for constructed languages in film, television, computer games and literature. Some conlangs designs were commissioned to linguists who did the real word. Is there a possibility ...

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