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How to make a language/code indecipherable or very hard to decipher/learn? What are the key points? How does linguists decipher languages?

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Languages are governed by certain laws/principles, that reflect the relationships between elements. For example, element frequency: you generally have a few elements which are very common, and a long tail of rare events.

To make a language hard to learn, break those rules. Make each word/phoneme/letter equally frequent. Common words are short and have several meanings, long words are rare and generally have fewer meanings (as they are more specific). Turn that the other way round. Make long words frequent and unspecific.

Early codes where cracked with frequency tables, ie the letters "e" and "t" being the most common symbols, so substitution ciphers were easily solved. Mix up the spelling of your words to make them semi-random (maybe add some random letters in the middle that are ignored).

The language you will end up with this way will be pretty unusable, and very hard to learn.

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